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“中国”在语境-指称空间的位置变化分析——以特朗普政府《贸易政策议程》为例

  • 论文价格:150
  • 用途: 硕士毕业论文 Master Thesis
  • 作者:上海论文网
  • 点击次数:1
  • 论文字数:28566
  • 论文编号:el2021122022261127612
  • 日期:2021-12-20
  • 来源:上海论文网

语言学论文哪里有?这项研究对进一步研究政治话语中的政策文件具有双重意义。在理论层面上,本文提出的语境指示空间模型是将认知语言学工具整合到批评语篇研究中的一种尝试,为批评认知语言学的进一步研究提供了理论依据。如前所述,认知语言学为其他学科提供了一个工具包。


1  Introduction


1.3   Research Significance

When it comes to the research significance of the thesis, both theoretical level and practical level are taken  into account.  At the theoretical  level,  the thesis  means to construct a foreign policy research paradigm concerning China’s spatial position in mental space. In particular, the socio-cognitive perspective within CCL may help us to examine the political power relationship behind  language,  in  particular  from  an  interpretation  stage.  Given  the  abstract  and  general nature of social cognition, deictic space model is introduced into the research paradigm in order to  visualize  social  cognition  within  political  discourse.  In  doing  so,  the  real  purposes  and political power relationship hidden behind discourse can be excavated and displayed in a highly visualized  way.  In  addition,  the  novel  Context-deictic  Space  model  makes  it  possible  to effectively visualize social cognition, which may contribute to the further development of CCL. Combing the context model and Deictic Space Model provides insight into visualizing Context-deictic Space in political discourse, which is of great significance to in empirical studies in this field. 

At the practical level,  investigating China’s position and potential shift of it in the three US  Trade  Policy  Agendas  in  the  past  three  years  will  help  better  understand  the  dynamic adjustment of the Trump Administration’s attitude towards China and its policy towards China in  trade,  and  fully  understand the  changes  of  Sino-US relation  and  its  possible  development trend.  Up  to  date,  the  discourse  analyses  of  US  foreign  policy  are  mainly  focused  on  the interpretation  of  America’s  policy  information,  without  sufficient  considerations  of  the dialectical  relationship  between  discourse  and  policy.  Indeed,  political  discourse  not  only reflects  policy,  but  also  plays  a  vital  role  in  the  formulation  and  implementation  of  policy. Specifically,  decision-makers  (discourse  producers)  transform  subjective  perceptions  and preferences into discourse, and produce specific policy discourse by manipulating vocabulary and  grammatical  means;  then  the  recipients  interpret  policy  discourses  subjectively  in  their cognitive  space,  and  form  corresponding  cognitive  meanings.  Recipients  in  the  same  social community  further  form  relatively  stable  social  cognition  on  the  policy  matter.  Under  the guidance of this ‘common sense’, the recipients could take corresponding actions, for example, support  or  oppose  the  administration  the  decision-maker  represented. 

语言学论文怎么写


3  Theoretical Framework


The  present  study  presents  a  theoretical  framework  based  on  the  socio-cognitive perspective  of  Critical  Cognitive  Linguistics[58].  In  the  past  twenty  years,  socio-cognitive approach  proposed  by  van  Dijk[12]  has  been  widely  viewed  as  a  powerful  analytical  tool  for discourse studies and relevant sociological studies. van Dijk[28]advocates that critical cognitive research should be conducted from a multidisciplinary perspective, that is, the socio-cognitive context behind the discourse should be taken into account when conducting detailed research on discourse structure. 

According to van Dijk[12], discourse structure and social structure are mediated by social cognition.  Social  cognition  refers  to  “the  system  of  mental  representations  and  processes  of group members”[59]18. In other words, social cognition is the knowledge, beliefs, goals, attitudes, social norms, value systems, and ideologies shared by group members of a society. And social cognition  plays  a  key  role  in  the  dialectical  relation  between  discourse  structure  and  social structure. Hence, van Dijk[12] holds that in the critical cognitive analysis of political discourse, the social identity and status of discourse producers indirectly affect their discourse production, including  the  choice  of  topics,  language  style  and  vocabulary.  Conversely,  discourse  also indirectly affects the identity construction and social status of its producers. Since producers of political discourses usually represent governments or nations, which consist of social structure to  a  degree. Thus,  discourse  indirectly  affects  social  structure  at the  macro  level.  Discourse affects  social  structure  through  social  cognition,  and  social  structure  affects  discourse production and consumption through social cognition[27]. 

语言学论文参考


5   Results and Discussion


5.1  Construction of Context-deictic Space Model

Based  on  the  characteristics  of  the  two  models  mentioned  in  previous  sections,  this investigation  introduces  the  context  model  of  CDS  into  the  Deictic  Space,  constructing  the Context-deictic  Space  Model. As  one  of  the  most  efficient  visualization  tools  in  CL,  deictic space model can overcome the deficit of the context model in visualization. In doing so, social cognition represented by the context model in mental space can be visualized in Deictic Space. 

5.1.1   Assumptions of the Context-deictic Space Model

In the present study, the author proposes a new model from the perspective of CCL based on above mentioned theoretical background[58]. On the one hand, as has been mentioned, the context model, as a significant representation of social cognition, acts as a medium  between discourse and social structure. Application of this model to political discourse has yielded new insights into CCL[61]. On the other hand, Deictic Space Model provides an excellent insight into the spatial visualization of political discourse and unveiling the hidden ideological conflicts in discourse, such as the relationship between the ‘self’ and the ‘other’. The thesis aims to advance above  theories  by  combining  the  context  model  with  the  Deictic  Space  Model  in  order  to visualize the context model and the abstract cognitive process. 

It should be pointed out that the Context-deictic Space Model proposed in the thesis refers to  the  ‘ideal’  Context-deictic  Space  Model.  Considering  the  cognitive  psychological background of the context model and the self-centered structure of the Deictic Space Model, the construction of this novel model is affected by social cognition and individual factors such as the reader or recipient’s knowledge and experience. Considering the individual difference in knowledge and experience, it is difficult and unrealistic for researchers to obtain every reader or recipient’s  Context-deictic Space Model  in operation. However, this does not  mean that Context-deictic Space Model is hard to grasp. In fact, it is possible and reasonable to derive an ‘ideal’ Context-deictic Space Model via eliminating individual knowledge and experience. In this ideal model, the discourse entities and corresponding spatial position are mainly affected by  social  cognition  shared  by  all  individuals  in  a social  group. 


5.2  Analysis of Context-deictic Space Model

In  order  to  investigate  the  shifting position of China  in Trump administration’s  Trade Policy Agendas, this thesis adopts the Context-deictic Space model proposed in section 5.1 for the analysis and constructs three Context-deictic Space Models corresponding to three Agendas. 

As stated in Chapter Four, the methodology part, the author firstly identifies the discourse entities  or  events  involved  in  the  corpus  by  constructing  situation  models.  In  our  case,  each sentence  in  the  Agenda  represents  a  situation  model.  During  the  identification  step,  the hierarchical structure and categories  in the situation model help to classify  various discourse entities. The deictic center of the Agenda stands for the view of the discourse producer, namely, the Trump administration represented by the USTR, who claims that  it represents the whole nation and state. Based on the characteristics of the Context-deictic Space Model, the ‘Other’ group is located at a relative distance from the deictic center along the s-axis. The ‘Self’ group is located at a proximal distance from the deictic center. 

In 2017 Agenda, following discourse entities or events are identified manually(see Tab. 5.1): the US, the trade growth of US, the great trading system for China and the great trading system for US. Among above discourse entities, ‘the trade growth of US’, and ‘the great trading system for US’ belong to the ‘Self’ group, while ‘The great trading system for China’ belongs to the ‘Other’ group. Thus, ‘the trade growth of US’ and ‘the great trading system for China’ are located at the proximal end of the s-axis, in contrast, ‘the great trading system for China’ is located at the distal end of the s-axis. Above discourse entities or events are projected onto the Setting zone and the Event zone in the Context-deictic Space, and they are located on the t-axis based  on  their  tense,  adverbs  and  phrases  representing  time.  For  example,  situation  models related to ‘the trade growth of US’ are mostly represented by past tense, indicating the glorious past of American trade growth. Hence, ‘the trade growth of US’ is located at the distal end of the t-axis. 


6   Conclusion


6.1  Major Findings

In recent years, the relations between China and US have undergone the greatest challenge since  the  two  countries  established  diplomatic  ties  in  1979.  The  cooperation  and  exchanges between these two super powers are even at the edge of disruption, which to a large extent is attributed to the escalating Sino-US trade tensions. 

Under the guidance of Critical Cognitive Linguistics, the research discusses the  shifting position of ‘China’ constructed in three Trade Policy Agendas released during the presidency of Donald Trump, and unveils the true policy orientation of the Trump administration towards China. Based on three Agendas released from January, 2017 to December, 2019, the following findings s are obtained in present research. 

In the first place, for more-in-depth visualization of China’s position in the Agenda, the research is conducted with a proposal of a novel mental model, that is, the Context-deictic Space Model, which bases itself on integrating context model and Deictic Space Model. The reasons for  integrating above two models are as  follows: firstly, the context model, originating  from socio-cognitive perspective of Critical Discourse Analysis, has been widely used as an effective mental  model  for  its  operability  in  socio-cognitive  analysis  of  political  discourse  by  many scholars. However, the spatial relations between discourse participants in the context model can be  hardly  presented  in  its  current  hierarchical  structure.  Secondly,  derived  from  Cognitive Linguistics,  Deictic  Space  Model  is  considered  as  a  promising  visualizer  of  position  of discourse  entities  in  mental  space,  but  its  deficiency  prevents  it  from  presenting  dynamic process  of  discourse  in  one  single  model,  thus  producing  a  large  amount  of  Deictic  Space Models produced when representing  the movement of a discourse entity. Hence, to visualize the positions of discourse entities and the spatial  relations among them  in one single  mental model, the Context-deictic Space Model is proposed by projecting the context model onto the Deictic Space, which  not only overcomes the deficits of above two models, but also utilizes their advantages to present the dynamic changes of the discourse entity in one single model. 

reference(omitted)

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