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中英交传的非流利现象及其应对策略——第三届“读懂中国”国际会议新闻发布会交传案例思考

  • 论文价格:150
  • 用途: 硕士毕业论文 Master Thesis
  • 作者:上海论文网
  • 点击次数:1
  • 论文字数:32225
  • 论文编号:el2021122721425227970
  • 日期:2021-12-27
  • 来源:上海论文网

国际会议论文哪里有?本研究发现,最常出现的不流利是完全停顿,其次是A-修复。D-修复和单字重复是第三常见的不流利。然后,在Levelt的言语产生和自我监控模型框架下,作者分析了导致概念化、形成、表达和监控阶段不流畅的因素,并得出结论:词汇搜索和选择效率低下,句法处理能力不足,记笔记和解码笔记的效率低下会导致口译不流利。此外,口误或压力导致的语音规划错误、个人习惯和口译员的自我监控能力有时与口译不流利的发生有关。


Chapter 1 Introduction


Disfluencies  exist  in  everyday  speeches  and  conversations,  and  interpreting activities can be  seen as special cases of speech production. Therefore, disfluency phenomena  can  also  be  found  in  consecutive  interpretation,  and  act  as  important indicators of how proficiently an interpreter performs during his or her interpreting task.

Generally speaking, disfluency phenomena are often considered to be directly related to how well a speaker commands a language in which he or she makes a speech. They are not only “important components of natural speeches”, but also “a concrete and quantifiable analysis basis for the cognitive study of some abstract concepts in linguistics, such as the language production process and meaning construction” (Zhang Weiwei et al. 2019: 119).

As China has been developing fast especially since the reform and opening up, it is  experiencing  huge  growth  in  the  demand  for  proficient  interpreters  because  of increasing trading activities, academic seminars, inter-governmental conferences, etc. Seeing from today’s interpreter market, Chinese interpreters are now rising up to more challenges than in the last century, which include a diversity of interpreting scenarios and  larger  coverage  of  topics;  moreover,  increasingly  extensive  and  high-level international exchanges held in or by China are calling for more highly-competent Chinese  interpreters. According  to  Dai  Zhaohui’s  analysis  on  TEM  8  examinees’ records of their C-E and E-C interpreting tests, pauses and repetitions still repeatedly happen in their output, and their self-repair strategies do not seem to produce ideal results (2011). Therefore, pragmatically speaking, this research can probably help find out different types of disfluencies during the delivery of Chinese interpreters, so as to bring  up  targeted  solutions  to  the  disfluencies  of  their  output  and  improve  their interpreting quality.  

国际会议论文怎么写


Chapter 2 Literature Review


2.1 Speech fluency

The concept of speech fluency has been applied to interpreting research since interpreting activities are regarded as a process of discourse delivery. According to Sylvi Rennert’s research, fluency has been studied as one of the many aspects to judge interpreting quality since the 1980s (2010: 101), and it has long been a part of the important criteria for the assessment of an interpreter’s performance (Pöchhacker 2016: 133). Pöchhacker concludes that fluency refers to the delivery of the speech, or the “physical  characteristics  of  the  acoustic  signals  produced  by  the  speaker  that  go beyond the verbal component of speech”, and suggests that speech rate and pauses are central parameters of fluency (2015: 165). He holds that much research on fluency actually examines deviations from specific norms, such as paralinguistic phenomena like “drawled phonemes, voiced hesitation and anomalous pauses in terms of position or length” and linguistic phenomena like “false starts, repairs and slips” (2015: 165-166). 

Paul Lennon points out that an interpreter should provide the audience with a finished product instead of imposing an analytical process of the information in the interpretation  on  the  listeners,  which  adds  to  their  loads  of  comprehending  the speeches (1990: 391-392). He brings forward the broad sense and narrow sense of fluency: The former one represents oral proficiency of a foreign language, and the latter one refers to one of the components to grade oral proficiency among “correctness, idiomaticness, relevance, appropriateness, pronunciation, lexical range”, etc. (1990: 389).  He  believes  that  research  on  speech  fluencies  often  emphasises  speech production “at the tempo of native speakers”, with few “silent pauses, hesitations, fill pauses, self-corrections, repetitions, false starts” (1990: 390).


Chapter 3 Case Study


3.1 Case description

Since speeches at most of the seminars and discussions of the 3rd UCC were interpreted  simultaneously,  the  author  chooses  the  press  conference  at  the  closing ceremony with consecutive interpretation as her research material.  

The research material is a video clip recorded at the press conference which lasts for about 1 hour. The press conference commenced with Ernesto Zedillo’s English speech, who is the former President of Mexico, and then Shaukat Aziz, former Prime Minister of Pakistan addressed the audience in English. After Mr. Zedillo and Mr. Aziz made their speeches, both Mr. Zhu Min, Vice Chairman of CIIDS, and Mr. Li Junru, Executive Vice Chairman of CIIDS made remarks in Chinese, which were rendered into  English,  and  only  the  corresponding  interpretations  of  their  speeches  are  the research objects.

This material is chosen and analysed for three reasons. First, the speeches were given on a formal occasion, so the interpretation of the event  is of relatively high reliability. Besides, two Chinese speakers made speeches without notes, which means that the interpreter had to analyse their speeches, transform them from Chinese (L1) to English (L2), monitor his output and make timely adjustments when needed. During this process, some disfluencies may occur due to a lack of smoothness when he was processing  the  message.  Second,  the  content  of  this  material  is  mainly  about  the speakers’ impressions of the Understanding China Conference, which involve China’s economic  growth,  scientific  and  technological  innovation,  intellectual  property protection,  people-to-people  exchanges  and  commercial  cooperation  with  other countries and regions, etc. All of the above topics are repeatedly brought up during China’s integration into the trend of globalisation as well as in foreigners’ efforts to understand  China  better.  Therefore,  this  material  is  believed  to  be  of  practical significance in this new era, and it also closely overlaps the MTI training orientation of the author’s university. Third, the speeches and the interpretation have a proper speech rate, duration and information density. 


3.2 Case analysis

In this part, the author collects the disfluencies of the interpretation which was presented at the 3rd UCC Press Conference. The data is shown as follows.

国际会议论文参考

It is worth mentioning that among all 127 disfluencies, filled pauses turn out to occur much more frequently than other disfluencies, accounting for almost 70% of them. Then factual error repairs and single-word repeats come second.


Chapter 4 Conclusion

This research is based on the analysis of the interpretation at the Press Briefing of  the  3rd  Understanding  China  Conference  in  terms  of  the  disfluency  phenomena during  consecutive  interpreting.  It  classifies  the  disfluencies  in  the  case  into  three general  categories,  which  are  pauses  (including  silent  and  filled  pauses),  repeats (including syllable, single-word, multiple-word repeats) and self-repairs (including D-, A-  and  E-repairs)  and  analyses  the  disfluencies  statistically.  It  is  found  that  filled pauses turn out to be the most frequently occurring disfluencies and A-repairs come second.  D-repairs  and  single-word  repeats  are  the  third  most  frequent  disfluencies. Then, under the framework of Levelt’s speech production and self-monitoring model, the  author  analyses  the  factors  that  lead  to  the  disfluencies  in  the  conceptualising, formulating, articulating and monitoring stages, and concludes that inefficient lexical search and selection, inadequate syntactic processing capability, and unproficiency in note-taking and note-decoding can give rise to interpreting disfluencies. Besides, a slip of  the  tongue  or  pressure-driven  phonetic  planning  errors,  personal  habits,  and  the interpreter’s  self-monitoring  competence  are  sometimes  connected  with  the occurrence of interpreting disfluencies. 

Based on the analysis, some suggestions are given to trainee interpreters whose L1  is  Chinese  and  L2  is  English.  For  the  conceptualising  process,  familiarity  with background knowledge and task-bound knowledge can be developed through adequate preparation work so that the Chinese messages can be transformed into English ones as soon as possible. For the formulating process, the knowledge store with lexis can be  expanded  and  quicker  information  matching  can  be  invoked.  Besides,  syntactic structures can also be kept in interpreters’ knowledge store. Controlling speech rate and relieve nervousness can reduce the occurrence of a slip of tongue which always leads  to  repairs  and  repeats,  and  daily  practices  can  help  a  lot  with  examining unnecessary inarticulation. Self-repairs derived from the self-monitoring process can be slashed by properly organising the structure of the notes and developing a clear and explicit set of shorthand notation.

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