本文是一篇工程管理论文，本论文研究工作中有一种 PET 容器处理方法的建议。这种方法或模型的替代方案是创建一个回收链，政府通过法律框架将强制参与聚乙烯对苯二甲酸酯容器交换到生产商（制造商），超市或销售点和最终消费者的系统。本论文以机械回收为基础，以捕获机器进行的选择性收集为起点，只接受与回收链协议一致的公司处于消费后阶段的容器。
1 Generalities (概观)
1.1 Introduction (概述)
The present thesis of degree to opt for the Master's Degree in Project Management, consists of the analysis, background and current status of the PET recycling on the Republic of Costa Rica through the framing of reverse logistics and its connection with the environment. Because the presentation of this research project is based in China, a brief review of Costa Rican history and its most outstanding environmental achievements will be made.
Costa Rica is a country belonging to the American continent, located in the central region delimiting Nicaragua to the north and Panama to the south. It was discovered in 1502 by Christopher Columbus, a Spanish discoverer who began the stage of colonization that was lived until the year 1821 when Costa Rica became independent from Spain and joined the Mexican empire. By the year 1838, Costa Rica became a fully independent nation. Between the years of 1849 to 1859, the American William Walker intends to take control of Central America to which Costa Rica is opposed, they go to war and manage to impede Walker's objective.
Costa Rica is a country that has gone through very few wars and conflicts of a warlike nature. However, in the year of 1948 there was a civil war as a result of which electoral fraud was committed in the presidential elections, giving the victory to Otilio Ulate before the candidate Rafael ángel Calderón. A war of 44 days is unleashed, as a contingency measure a temporary government is established by José María Figueres. Between 1948 and 1949 the current Costa Rican Political Constitution was promulgated and the army dissolved.
1.2 Topic background (主题背景)
The connection between the economy and the environment is more evident and tangible in our time than in past times. During the last decades, the world population and its purchasing power has increased greatly, making customer goods more accessible to more people which can later translate into pollution to the environment, making reverting its negative effects an incredibly challenging task and having negative externalities for its inhabitants.
It is considered that plastics are short-lived elements and that their greatest negative impact is that they leave a large amount of waste. The above makes that these qualities that plastics have to satisfy long-term requirements are depleted and neglected. They have been more than evident the studies carried out in different countries, have found that only one fifth of plastics have a duration of use less than a year. Approximately 20 years ago, PET began to be used massively in Costa Rica. The most distinctive property of this material is the gas barrier, which gave it a great diffusion as a container for soft drinks and subsequently other products such as cooking oils, mayonnaises, cosmetic products, among others ...
However, it is not only these properties that influenced this choice on the part of the manufacturers of the industrial sectors and the consumers of them. A particularity of polyethylene terephthalate packaging is its lightweight in relation to the product purchased and above all, the safety of the users before a break or fall, these were the determining factors for the generalization and popularization of its use.
The plastic, having been incorporated into the daily life of the inhabitants worldwide, has evidenced a considerable part of the produced waste began to accumulate in the environment, this due to the high resistance of plastics to corrosion, the environment by itself and the slow degradation by microorganisms. Annually, millions of tons of plastic waste is produced worldwide.
2 Theoretical framework. Logistics, environment and PET.
2.1 Direct logistics and its practices (直接物流及其实践)
The human being has been inhabiting the earth for approximately two hundred thousand years. Despite this long period of time, the concept of logistics can be said to have been used since the beginning, since man must resort to making decisions in his life to locate his daily activities. With each decision that is made, various cost-benefits will be involved in each one of them.
Organizations, be it the case of small companies or large companies, face constant uncertainty in aspects such as deciding where to establish their distribution center, production center, supply center, etc., which will enable them to meet the demands of customers. Deciding the location of these centers implies taking into account aspects such as reducing customer service times, making efficient use of resources, minimizing costs related to installation and optimizing the systems used. This is how we can define logistics, seen as the process that seeks to anticipate the requirements of customers of a particular company, through efficient management and strategic adaptation necessary to ensure the distribution of information, goods or services up to the final point that is the client, the above made in a timely, complete and timely manner.
Likewise, within the concept of logistics, the processes concerning, the development of new products (their design, their introduction in the market, etc.), distribution and manufacturing processes (manufacturing in different scales, mode of transport, integration of processes) and the management of materials (the supply, planning, manufacturing process, relations with suppliers, assembly lines), are all contemplated within the definition of logistics.
2.2 Definition of reverse logistics and its various approaches (逆向物流的定义及其各种方法)
The logistics as such are interrelated with various difficulties within which are those that have to do with the materials that are manufactured, see if it is feasible to recycle these materials and find ways to minimize time and costs. This factor refers to the role played by the logistics of recycling, the handling of waste and the handling of those products considered hazardous. In other words, the return of goods is managed throughout the supply chain in its entirety.
Reverse logistics can be defined as the process of control, development and planning in the flow of materials, products and information from its point of origin to the place of consumption, in such a way that the needs of customers can be met, proceeding to the recovery of the collected waste and then being managed to make feasible its possible reintroduction in the supply chain, achieving that this product obtains an added value or otherwise, discarding it in an appropriate way.
On each occasion, it is vital that the state in which the waste is found is contemplated, its characteristics and the degree of danger it represents, the place where it will be stored, its place of destination, among others ...; the sum of the previous characteristics must go hand in hand with the protection of the environment, trying to comply with ecological standards in terms of the management of resources and charges, being consistent with their respective corporate mission. In the same way, it is very important to establish what will be the place of return of the goods or products. It is often preferable that the place of return be different from the storage place where there are new products or that are otherwise separated. Several businesses have established a review center for the goods that are returned to them, as well as other businesses that choose to send them to a repair center with characteristics that match the products manufactured. This examination is linked to the evaluation of whether a product can be recovered or not, the necessary procedures for its repair and return to the client, in the same way, its analysis to decide whether to proceed to the recycling process or whether It gives the destruction of the product.
3 PET 容器的回收过程及其与逆向物流的关系 ................................ 22
3.1 获得 PET 的过程 ................................. 23
3.2 回收 ........................... 24
4. 哥斯达黎加废物管理：地方和国际立法 ................................. 32
4.1. I 国际条约 ....................................... 32
4.1.1 控制危险废物越境转移及其处置巴塞尔公约 .................... 32
4.1.2 UNFCCC 联合国气候变化框架公约 ..................................... 33#p#分页标题#e#
5 市场研究. ...................................... 40
5.1 聚对苯二甲酸乙二醇酯的测定 ..................................... 40
5.2 卡塔戈市聚对苯二甲酸乙二醇酯消费量分析 ......................... 41
8 Cooperation, environmental protection and the impact of pollution by plastics
8.1 Green growth and the impact of pollution in Costa Rica (哥斯达黎加的绿色增长和污染的影响)
8.1.1 Green growth (绿色增长)
Costa Rica has been a pioneer in green growth worldwide. According to the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), the concept of green growth is defined as "fostering economic growth and development and at the same time ensuring that natural assets continue to provide the environmental resources and services of which our welfare depends on. To achieve this, it must catalyze investment and innovation that underpin sustained growth and open up new economic opportunities."
In this period, it is very important to promote this type of economic growth, because if we do not act in an expeditious manner, the shortage of natural resources such as water will be much more coming than anticipated, there will be a strangulation of other natural resources having as secondary effects a greater contamination, we will be increasingly submerged in the immersed negativities of climate change and there will be a severely serious irreparable or irreversible loss in the biodiversity of the planet.
Having that environmental awareness and responsibility will have its fruits in the near and distant future. If you act in a responsible way, it will be easier or at least slow down the fact that the water being in a state of contamination, you have to create mechanisms and the construction of the infrastructure to be able to purify the water, make it potable and safe for consumption of human beings and animals, as well as delaying the mechanism that has to be devised for the transportation of this water that has gone through the purification steps so that it can be distributed to the entire population.
9 Conclusions and recommendations
9.1 Conclusions (结论)