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语法隐喻视角下英汉感知句对比之语言学研究

日期:2019-04-29 22:39 作者:上海论文网 编辑:vicky 点击次数:200
销售价格:0 论文编号:el2019042922394818855 论文字数:8267 所属栏目:语言学论文
论文地区: 论文语种:其他 论文用途:其他

本文是一篇语言学论文,本文在功能语言学语法隐喻理论框架下,对英汉感知句做了对比研究。感知句的一致式应符合以下语义标准:主参与者为感知者,具有生命性和相应的感知能力。

本文是一篇语言学论文,本文在功能语言学语法隐喻理论框架下,对英汉感知句做了对比研究。感知句的一致式应符合以下语义标准:主参与者为感知者,具有生命性和相应的感知能力,次参与者为现象,具有可被感性。按照违反标准的不同区分出感知句的隐喻式,进而对英汉常见感知隐喻句进行及物性过程分析并对比.

Chapter One     Introduction

1.1 Background and Aims
1.1.1 Study on Perception Clauses
Human beings start to know the world from themselves, and the sense organs are the  tools  of  getting  information  from  outside world.  People’s  organs  are  the  first objects to understand and experience the world, so they are in the significant position in the cognitive system. The perception through five sense organs is the foundation of acquisition  and  accumulation  for  the  higher  level  of information.  In  this  sense, perception  is  the  starting  point  of  cognitive  activities  and  the  source  of  knowledge about the world. Obviously, the metaphorical study on perception is helpful to explore the cognitive motivations and the nature of language.
The perception of the external world is realized by perception verbs of see, hear, smell,  taste  and  feel.  People  discover  and  know the  world,  establish  concepts  and meanings, acquire and accumulate experience through eyes, ears, noses, tongues and hands. From the perspective of cognition, the perception of human being is bound to be reflected in the meanings of perception verbs, and then form projections between them. Whether in Chinese or English, the meanings of perception verbs are very rich. The perception concept, as the result of the conceptualization of perceptional events, is  also  one  of  the  most  pervasive  concept  in  the  world.  Its linguistic  representation occupies a prominent position in language. An overview of the study of English and Chinese tells us that many scholars at home and abroad have made various researches on perceptional verbs and perception clauses. The thesis provides a contrastive study of perceptional clauses in English and Chinese.
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1.2 Research Questions and Methodologies
This thesis centers on the following questions:
(1) Which  are  the  congruent  forms  and  metaphorical  forms  in  perceptional clauses?
(2) How  do  the  metaphorical  perceptional  clauses  shift  between  transitive processes?
(3) How  do  we  analyze  and  explain  the  metaphorical  phenomenon  in perceptional clauses in the view of GM theory?
(4) What are the similarities and differences between English and Chinese?
Based on these questions, the thesis is going to take the perception verb see, hear, smell,  taste  and  feel  as  examples  with  the purpose  of  analyzing  the  metaphorical forms in perceptional clauses and make an analysis on their transitive processes.
The methods used in the research are as followings:
(1) The method of literature research
Through searching for the previous relevant literature, we work out the theories on  grammatical  metaphor,  prototype  theory.  We take Halliday’s  method  to  identify the  congruent  and  metaphorical  forms  in  perceptional  clauses.  These  have  laid  the foundation for the following research.
(2) Corpus approach
Through searching for perceptional clauses in British National Corpus (BNC) and Center  for  Chinese  Linguistics  PKU  (CCL),  we collect  examples  of  perceptional clauses and make classifications for them. Then we pick out the frequent and typical examples to analyze their metaphorical meanings. On the one hand, the thesis makes an  objective  description  for  the  examples.  On  the  other hand,  it  tried  to  give reasonable explanations and further find out the general rules underlying the examples from  the  perspective  of cognitive  linguistics. 
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Chapter Two     Literature Review

2.1 Research of Perception Verbs 
During the process of our literature collecting, we find that many scholars have studied  on  perception  verbs  which  are  beneficial  to the  study  of  this  thesis.  As  we know the perception verbs are the core of perceptional clauses, it is great significant to review the previous research on perceptions from different perspectives.
2.1.1 Research from Traditional Grammar
Traditionally, the previous study on English perception verbs are mainly on their definitions  and  classifications.  In  terms  of  their functions  and  uses,  the  perception verbs are classified to three types: verbs of action, perception, and copula according to their meaning and category features. For example, we usually regard the verbs see and hear as perception verbs. However, there exists a problem that when they are used in the sentence of We saw the film last night and the sentence of We are going to hear a concert tonight. In both of the clauses see and hear express the meanings of action.  
Quirk  (1985)  makes  a  comprehensive  and  throughout  research  on  perception verbs  on  their  usages  in  the  perspective  of traditional  grammar.  Perception  verbs  in his  view  include  see,  hear,  smell,  feel,  perceive  watch,  notice,  observe,  spot,  spy, overhear, appear, seem, etc. According to his classification, all verbs about people’s senses  of  the  material  world  belong  to perception  verbs.  Quirk  classified  perception verbs  into  two  types  consisting  of  stative  and  dynamic  perception  verbs.  In  the perceptional clauses with stative verbs, the sensers can be put in the subject position or  object  position.  In  other  words,  the  subject can  be  acted  by  perceiver  or  percept. The dynamic perception verbs can also divided into non-agentive and agentive verbs furtherly.  Quirk  also  points  out  that  see  also  have  the  meanings  reflecting  mental activities,  which  are  the  non-perceptual uses of  the  perception  verbs.  He  also distinguish the use between visual perception and mental perception. When see is in the  sentence of  I  see  what  you  mean,  it  belongs  to  a  mental  perception  verb,  which express  the  meaning  of  understanding.  However, Quirk  neither  make  specific classification  on  perceptional  meaning  of  perception  verbs,  nor  discuss  the  semantic relations between different perceptional meanings.
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2.2 Study of Grammatical Metaphor Theory
Halliday (1985) firstly put forward the concept of grammatical metaphor in his An  Introduction  to  Functional  Grammar  (1st  edition). Through  over  30  years’ development,  grammatical  metaphor  has  made  great  progress  and  became  the  hot topic  in  academic circles.  Halliday  (1985,  1993,  1994,  1995/  2007,  1998a,  1998b/ 2007),  Halliday  and  Martin  (1993),  Goatly  (1997),  Halliday and Matthiessen  (1999, 2004, 2014) have been made a comprehensive study on it. Many scholars also make an  extension  to  Halliday’s research  model  and  introduce  new  categorizations  for grammatical metaphor. Ravelli (1988), Martin (1992) and Goatly (1993) make study on  grammatical  metaphor  related  to  ideology  and  register.  Many  Chinese  scholars also make a detailed introduction and research on grammatical metaphor.Hu (2000),  Yan  (2000,  2003),  Zhu  and  Yan  (2000),  Fan  (2007),  Zhu  (2006),  Zhang  and Zhao (2008),  Lin  and  Yang  (2010),  Cong  (2011,  2014),  Cong  and  Wang  (2012,  2017), Zhang  and  Lei  (2013)  mainly  involve the  classifications,  motivations,  manifestation forms and philosophical meanings. Jin and Chen (2004), Yang (2013), Chen (2014), Lin and  Zhang  (2014)  study  the  grammatical  metaphor  under  the  cognitive perspective.  Based  on  the  previous  researches,  the thesis  is  going  to  make  an introduction on grammatical metaphor.
2.2.1 Definition and Categorization
Halliday  (1985)  firstly  puts  forward  the  concept  of  grammatical  metaphor  and has a special exposition to it in this book. He points out that it is the interface between the syntactical layer and sematic layer. Halliday classifies grammatical metaphor into conceptual grammatical  metaphor  and  interpersonal  grammatical  metaphor.  The former  describes  processes  and  quality  in  forms  of  nouns instead  of  verbs  and adjectives. The latter expresses the mode and modality by clauses instead of adverbs. Briefly,  the  main manifestation  form  of  conceptual  grammatical  metaphor  is nominalization;  the  manifestation  forms  of  interpersonal  grammatical metaphor  are sentence  patterns  such  as  “It  seems  like…  ”,  “I  think…”  and  “It  is  likely…”.  Later, Halliday  points  out  that  the expressions  which  are  accustomed  to  being  used  by language  users  actually  undergo  a  series  of  grammatical  metaphorical shifts.  So  he proposed  the  concept  of  grammatical  metaphor  syndromes,  and  makes  a re-classification on grammatical metaphor. For example,
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