本文是文学论文，This research proposes that literary tourism as a new form of tourism can be applied in the Grand Canal (Hangzhou Section). Through the case study, the author offers some suggestions and measures for developing literary tourism. First, the new model aims to cater to the better educated and individualistic tourists. Literary tourism mainly satisfies the literature enthusiasts ranging from students to senior citizens. The major findings consist of a self-designed literary tourism route with literary interpretations for certain scenic spots and the introduction of appropriate equipment and technology. Furthermore, the idea of developing literary tourism is welcomed by a series of experienced tourist guides of the Grand Canal (Hangzhou Section). As for designing a literary tourism route, there are some significant factors should be considered, including the geographical distribution and integrating some similar scenic spots. On top of that, as the canal flows from Beijing to Hangzhou and involves various cities, the designer should pay attention to the unique attractiveness of the literary tourism route which makes Hangzhou come to the fore. Hence, literary tourism functions as a self-determined and self-selected social and economic development model by the local government.
Chapter 1 Introduction
Nowadays, tourism plays an essential role in increasing people’s happiness and sense of acquisition. According to a report published by the United Nations World Tourism Organization (UNWTO)2, in 2018, more than 160 million Chinese residents left the country, and more than 140 million inbound tourists entered the country. Tourism has been a top choice when it comes to entertainment. The central government thus attaches great importance to the development of tourism. Entitled “The UNWTO Tourism Highlights 2018 Edition”, the report noted that Chinese tourists spent 258 billion U.S. dollars on international tourism in 2017, almost one-fifth of the world’s total tourism spending. According to the report, overall international tourist arrivals grew by 7 percent to 1,323 million in 2017, the most massive rise since 2010. The growth in arrivals found an echo in a sharp increase in exports generated by tourism, which reached 1.6 trillion U.S. dollars in 2017. In recent years, the Ministry of Culture and Tourism has attempted to promote the integration of tourism and cultural undertakings and industries. The theme of China Tourism Day 2019 is “The Integration of Culture and Tourism for a Better Life”. With the vigorous promotion of cultural tourism, the upgrading of tourism consumption and the improvement of cultural tourism quality have become a significant trend. At present, the critical task is to advocate the continuous integration of cultural tourism and strive to improve the quality of cultural tourism services, so that cultural tourism can become a new momentum of enhancing people’s life. Cultural tourist attractions involve the unique material, spiritual and emotional characteristics of a society, including art, literature, music, architecture, historical and cultural heritage, culinary traditions, creative industries, lifestyle, value system, religious beliefs and so on. The integration of intangible cultural heritage and tourism has now come into reality. Based on international experience, the combination of culture and tourism involves intangible cultural heritage, material cultural heritage, and contemporary culture. In Britain, for example, museum tourism is usually developed by combining intangible cultural heritage with museums. After 30 years of protection and development, Marie Ruth, a Tudor-era British warship, has been restored by cultural relics protection and architectural design professionals. The Marie Ruth Museum has attracted more than 9.25 million visitors. The integration of culture and tourism can not only protect heritage or achieve economic growth but promote tourism diversification and enhance cultural understanding. It is no doubt that cultural tourism has become an inevitable trend.
Chapter 2 Literature Review
2.1 The definition of literary tourism
Besides, literary tourism refers to a form of cultural tourism traveling to places associated with writers, writers’ works, literary depictions and the writing of creative literature (Smith, 2012, p.9) or as a journey to places famous for associations with books or authors (Squire, 1993). Schaff (2011) argued that literary tourism is a part of the heritage industry. A nostalgia informs people of the irretrievable past in this industrial age. The tourism commodification of literature works is displayed in the diversity of literary tourist attractions, which extend from the authentic writer’s home to attractions, sites, and landscapes that inspired authors or are featured in their novels. As suggested by Schaff (2011), tourism is one of the most modern ways of learning about the world, while reading literature works is relatively traditional. Furthermore, she argues that literary tourism is a complex cultural practice combined with creative imagination. When they stroll through literary landscapes, tourists’ appropriating and controlling gaze constitutes a crucial part of the tour. Literary tourism scholar Nicola Watson (2009) suggested that literary tourism refers to the production and consumption of places, landscapes, museums, historic houses, and graves associated with published creative writings and their authors. Specifically, the visiting of the memorial halls, former residences or graves is included in literary tourism. Also, the birthplace of literary works or background settings is accepted in a broad sense. The range of tourist visiting sites associated with literary works or figures varies from self-identified, dedicated, and knowledgeable “pilgrims” as fans of an author or novel, to those who have more moderate touring interests (Robinson & Andersen, 2003). Literary tourism is shaped by the language of the works produced and published. Some imaginative places are created because of fans’ passion for literature works, such as “Shakespeare’s England” or “Wordsworth’s Lake District”. Literary tourism has a close connection with the popularity of the writings of the authors. Associations with writers have long attracted tourists and have also acted as markers of local, regional, and national identities. Literary heritage-based tourism can be traced back to literary pilgrims (Eagle & Carnell, 1977) but is not limited to that. The British Tourist Authority has published maps of “Literary Britain”. Places like Shakespeare’s Stratford and the Bronte’s Yorkshire are recognized internationally (Squire, 1994). The growing literature on secular as opposed to religious pilgrimage outlines the primary form of literary tourism as a literary pilgrimage. Collins-Kreiner (2010) argued that pilgrimage research must emphasize subjectivity rather than objective reality. Literary tourism and travel writing share some similarities, while the former marked more by imagination rather than direct experience (Robinson, 2004). The adaptation of a book on the screen can invigorate interest in a novel. The phenomenon of film tourism is also closely aligned with literary tourism. Both engage the “reader” with narratives of place (Robinson, 2004; Connor & Kim, 2014).
2.2 Literary tourism and new ways for new tourists
Chambers (2009) believed that “new tourists” are well-educated professional travelers. Such tourists tend to personalize their experience and reject the single and monotonous mode. Tourism in the future may integrate cultural attributes into tourism experience. These trends represent a shift to tourism, which focuses on the diversification of traveling experience rather than on an excessive concentration of traditional tour routes. Developing literary trails, introducing the local literary history and current literary culture to residents and tourists are specific strategies to solve the ongoing conflicts between tourists and tourism development. The purpose of designing literary trails is to let tourists follow a line and trace back to the places that are related to writers and works, as the selected tourist attractions in the Trail Series are grouped to form a meaningful whole (Robinson & Andersen, 2003, p.9). Many countries attempt to extend from specific locations (e.g. literary museums) to literary trails (especially urban trails), to establish an emerging cultural tourism framework to enhance the interaction between tourists and the tour destinations. In this case, literary trails have become the intersection of digital technology and literary heritage. With the use of programs such as Google maps, it has become a simple task to create an interactive map that can be modified based on a specific user community. Dublin’s “i Walks” is a podcast-based literary trail made by the Dublin Tourism Board. It offers a variety of free downloadable MP3 files for self-guided walking tours. Through text and other media, digital-based literary trails are established. The literary trails encourage pedestrians to be engaged with surrounding communities and urban space. This form allows visitors to interact with the literary city without having to hire a tour guide or carrying a paper map. This provides a place for tourists to participate in, and at the same time reflects the diversity of literary tourism. For example, based on the literary trails of Rome, Italy, Stiebel (2013) explored the concepts of the existing literary tourist attractions and projects in Kwa Zulu-Natal, South Africa. Funded by the regional municipalities and the National Arts Council, Kwa Zulu-Natal produced seven literary trails. The existing literary trails provided much information for literary pilgrims both at home and abroad. Susan Carson et al. (2016) presented the test results for the development of domestic tourist and literary tourist trails in Brisbane, Queensland. The findings suggested that the literary trail network travel model established in Brisbane can meet the needs of new visitors in a sustainable manner, which may extend to all parts of the state. The following step is to continue to develop literary tourism by leveraging government and industry support for the project.