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“八步模式”在高中英语写作教学中的实验探讨
  • 论文价格:150
  • 用途: 硕士毕业论文 Master Thesis
  • 编辑:vicky
  • 点击次数:1次
  • 论文字数:35666
  • 论文编号:el2021110319532525300
  • 日期:2021-11-03
  • 来源:上海论文网

英语论文哪里有?本研究以模因论、Krashen的输入假说和Swain的输出假说为基础,采用试卷、问卷和访谈等方法探讨了本实验的效果,通过数据分析发现,“八步模式”可以提高学生的写作质量和兴趣,但不能提高学生的自主性。


Chapter 1 Introduction


1.1 Research Background

Basing on years of writing teaching experience, Yan Dong introduced the“Eight-Step Model” when he taught his students how to teach writing in the course oftextbook analysis in 2020, which aroused the author’s interest: interpreting model essay(imitating content), summarizing style (imitating structure), refining words and sentences(imitating language), activating materials (writing outline), achieving imitation (writingthe whole passage), peer revision / teacher comments, and final revision.

Since the 1960s, people have found that the training of writing skills is an essentialpart of foreign language learning. The teaching requirements and contents of high schoolstudents were specified from the following respects: subject context, discourse type,language knowledge, cultural knowledge, language skills and learning strategies by theEnglish Curriculum Standard of Senior High School. Although the standard attaches greatimportance to cultivating students’ writing ability, language and content in the concretepractice of English writing class in high school, English writing teaching course in highschool is still traditional (teacher-centered), and the teachers in it also have a dispositionto pay more attention to the teaching of words and syntax. Every student’s languagelearning needs these foundations, but they are slightly different from the standards of thenew curriculum. There is no doubt that this will lead to poor English reading, writingability and a reluctance to write, which will go against students’ comprehensive andsustainable development. In addition, although many teachers begin to explore thelanguage or culture of style, they often focus on the intensive reading teaching ofvocabulary and grammar rather than instructing students to imitate the structure andwriting skills of the model composition they read. As a result, the students only acquirethe linguistic knowledge block by block and are poorly aware of the compositions’“literature power” and “ thinking power”. Gradually, this teaching method (input errorand less output) results in students’ insufficient writing ability. Indeed, as early as 1978,Widdowson (1978) proposed the incorporation of reading and writing into teaching. Heargues that language learners can learn reading skills by writing and grasp writing skillsby reading. Since then, there has been consensus among theorists that reading and writing are an inseparable means of learning because they are mutually reinforcing. Moreover, theprocess of them has similarity and is dynamic (Stotsky, 1983; Widdowson, 1978; Kucer,1987).

Table 4.1 The Scores of the Pre-test of EC & CC1

Table 4.1 The Scores of the Pre-test of EC & CC1

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Chapter 3 Research Design


3.1 Research Questions

1) This study aims to examine the effect of the “Eight-Step Model” applied in highschool English writing classes by using test paper, questionnaires, and interview, toexplore the current status of the “imitation” and “evaluation” activities in high schoolEnglish writing classes by analyzing the data, and to verify whether the “Eight-StepModel” can help high school students improve their writing quality, interests andautonomy. The specific research questions are as follows.

1) What is the effect of the application of “Eight-Step Model” in senior high schoolEnglish writing teaching like?

2) What are the problems of “Eight-Step Model” existing in senior high schoolEnglish writing teaching?

Table Reliability and Validity of the questionnaires

Table Reliability and Validity of the questionnaires

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Chapter 5 Main Findings and Suggestions


5.1 Main Findings

After the above research, this research has drawn the following four conclusions:Firstly, senior high school students’ feelings on English writing are relatively negative.Specifically, the experimental subjects of the two classes have lower values of “like”,“confidence” and “satisfaction” in English writing. The experimental data shows that thenegative words such as “nervous”, “worried”, “anxious”, “blank-minded” and “afraid”account for a large proportion in describing the feelings of English writing. Secondly,most senior high school students lack of basic English writing ability, which is embodiedin the fact that most of them translate Chinese sentences into English sentences whenwriting English compositions. In addition, quite a number of high school students canonly complete part of their English writing in accordance with the requirements of contentand format within the prescribed time. Thirdly, most of them do not have the habit of“imitating”, “writing” and “modifying”, such as extracting good words and sentences,keeping a diary, outlining, and communicating with peers. This shows that their attitudetowards English writing is passive, and they lack of interest in English writing. Becauseof these internal psychological and emotional barriers and external traditional writingteaching model, their input and output of daily English is low, so it is difficult to improvetheir writing quality. Fourthly, after the experiment, although they still find it difficult towrite fluently in English as before, according to Questionnaire II, it can be found that the“Eight-Step Model” advocates the “imitation” of content, structure and language, whichmakes most students feel that English writing is easy, so that they can get a sense ofachievement in writing. In addition, the negative emotions of English writing are sloweddown after the experiment. 

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5.2 Suggestions

When teaching students English writing, teachers should give excellent model essayswhich are close to students’ life and easy to be understood, so that the students can“imitate” (input). On the basis of understanding and acceptance of these essays, thestudents assimilate language memes. In the process of imitative learning, teachers shouldalso guide students and encourage them to recite classic model passages of moderatedifficulty and length, and apply the words, phrases, sentence patterns and text structuresin the model essays to new writing materials. By imitating the content, structure andlanguage of the model essay, the students can associate the existing materials in theirbrain basing on their original experience, express their thoughts and feelings, and create.

Secondly, the questionnaires and interview find that the number of students who donot make an outline before English writing after the experiment is still over 40%, but 3interviewees with different English proficiency think that the outline makes their writingideas clear and the text more logical. Therefore, teachers should pay attention to cultivate students’ habit of outlining, and guide students to achieve their own writing basing on thisoutline. Specifically speaking, teachers should train students to divide the whole articleinto three paragraphs basing on the purpose of the essay and the ideas and feelings theywant to express. Then the students should outline quickly and think about the tense to beused in the paragraph. After that, they can extract the words, phrases, sentence patternsand contents that are imitated and exist in their brain. Next, teachers should guide them touse the given cohesive words and sentences appropriately so as to connect the content ofthe outline into paragraphs to make a composition.

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Chapter 6 Conclusion


6.1 Summary

Based on memetics, Krashen’s input hypothesis and Swain’s output hypothesis, thisstudy uses test paper, questionnaire and interview to explore the effect of this experiment.Through data analysis, it is found that “Eight-Step Model” can improve students’ writingquality and interest, but not their autonomy. After all, this “Eight-Step Model” of highschool English writing mode has the following problems: 1) If teachers don’t pay specialattention to it, this writing teaching mode will make students rely too much on imitationwriting. When they finish writing the content that can be imitated, they don’t know howto write it down. In other words, if this model ignores the effective output (thecombination of imitation writing and independent writing in the new context), it willaffect students’ subjective initiative and creativity. 2) The peer’s evaluation of theircompositions will have a great impact on their self-confidence, and will lead to a lot ofpsychological pressure (perhaps this phenomenon only occurs in Class B).

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