Chapter 1 Introduction
1.1 Research Background
The English Curriculum Standard for Compulsory Education (2011 Edition)(hereinafter referred to as the Standard) points out that teachers should make creativeuse of traditional media such as blackboards, whiteboards, cards, sketches, wall charts,models and objects according to the actual teaching conditions, while actively usingmodern teaching resources such as audio-visual, multimedia and the Internet to enrichthe content and form of teaching and to provide a context conducive to students’observation, imitation, experimentation and experience. (Ministry of Education,2011).
Listening and speaking are two of the basic skills in English learning, and theyare important aspects of English learners’ comprehensive language use ability. Thenewly published English Curriculum Standards for Junior High School point out thatthe main goals of the Junior High School English Curriculum are to stimulatestudents’ interest in learning English, to build their confidence in learning English,and to develop their comprehensive language skills, especially to develop theircommunicative competence in English. The cultivation of English communicativecompetence depends on the cultivation of English listening and speaking skills.However, in the current teaching of English in junior high school, due to the lack ofeffective teaching methods of English listening and speaking, teachers focus more onthe explanation of language knowledge points and neglect the cultivation of Englishlistening and speaking skills. Although some teachers pay attention to the importanceof listening and speaking teaching, they usually only test students’ listening andspeaking ability instead of cultivating and developing students’ listening and speakingability. In the long run, students’ listening and speaking skills are very weak. All theseproblems make the current effect about the development of English listening and speaking ability in junior high school is not very well.
Chapter 3 Theoretical Basis
3.1 Multimodal Discourse Analysis Theory
3.1.1 Concepts Related to Multimodal Discourse
This section elaborates that to introduce the theoretical framework of multimodaldiscourse analysis, the concepts of multimodality, multimodal discourse andmultimodal discourse analysis should first be distinguished and developed under theguidance of systemic functional linguistics.
In order to develop applied research in ELT within a multimodal perspective, it isimportant to have a clear understanding of the three basic concepts of multimodality,multimodal discourse, and multimodal discourse analysis. The theory of discourseanalysis was first proposed in the early 1950s by the American linguist Harris, whofocused on the intrinsic connection between discourse activity and cognitive patternsand their laws. However, the early models of discourse analysis only emphasized thestudy of a single modality, such as language and words, and completely ignoredsymbolic resource systems such as images, sounds, gestures, and body movements. Itwas not until 1977, when Barthes (1977) explored the interplay between language andimages in expressive meaning in his book The Rhetoric of Images, that the study ofdiscourse analysis was no longer limited to unimodal language and words. Theemergence of multimodal discourse analysis theory dates back to the late 1990s, whenGunther Kress & Theo Van Leeuwen (1996) in their book “Language, Context, andDiscourse: A Social Semiotic Perspective”, after referring to and using themulti-semiotic resource system constructed in Halliday & Hasan’s (1985) book“Language, Context, and Discourse: A Social Semiotic Perspective”. 1996) firstintroduced the concept of modality in their monograph Reading Images, pointing out that modality is a semiotic resource that can simultaneously embody differentcommunicative and discursive categories and can produce different practical effectsthrough a variety of different production media, and at the same time they gavesufficient attention to the extent to which different semiotic resources can influencepeople’s understanding of the meaning of discourse, and on this basis theyemphasized the importance of bringing more In addition, they emphasize theinclusion of more non-verbal symbolic systems, such as voice, gesture, image, andbody movement, into the theoretical study of multimodal discourse analysis. Jweitt’s(2006) rationale for combining discourse and multimodality is that, in real context,linguistic words occupy only a very small part of the meaning of discourse, whilenon-linguistic factors dominate the entire the meaning of the discourse.
Chapter 5 Research Design and ResearchProcess
5.1 Research Design
In the research design section of this chapter, the first thing to identify is theresearch question, followed by the research hypothesis, then analyze thecharacteristics of the research object, specify the research materials, and finallyidentify the appropriate experimental methods and determine the research tools.
5.1.1 Research Questions
With the increasing emphasis on how to effectively improve students’ Englishlistening and speaking skills in the classroom, more and more studies have beenconducted on the application of multimodal discourse analysis theory to listening andspeaking instruction, and these studies focus on demonstrating whether multimodallistening and speaking instruction has a positive impact on students’ listening andspeaking skills. In this paper, we explore the use of multimodal symbolic resources toconstruct a multimodal model of listening and speaking, and to design the bestteaching plan for junior high school English listening and speaking from a multimodalperspective. Based on the theory of systemic functional linguistics, the theoreticalframework of multimodal discourse analysis is used in an attempt to find the bestmodality and its mutual collocation in order to test its relevant effects on listening and speaking teaching. In order to be able to better apply the multimodal English listeningand speaking teaching model in elementary schools, the research in this chapter willfocus on the following two issues:
(1) How does the application of multimodal discourse analysis theory toclassroom teaching affect students’ attitudes toward learning?
(2) What are the effects of using multimodal discourse analysis theory onstudents’ listening and speaking skills?
5.2 Research Process
The applied study in this chapter started with a pre-experimental questionnairesurvey of the students in the experimental and control classes, followed by a pre-testof the listening and speaking ability of the experimental and control classes, and thelistening and speaking scores of the two classes were analyzed by SPSS Statistics 25.0statistical data analysis software to ensure that the pre-test scores of the two classeswere not statistically different from each other. Then the teaching experiment wasconducted in conjunction with the first book of Renai’s English education textbook,and the students in the experimental and control classes were given a post-test of theirlistening and speaking skills at the end of the teaching experiment, and the same SPSS25.0 statistical data analysis software was used to compare whether there was astatistically significant effect on the improvement of the two classes’ scores. Finally,post-experimental questionnaires were distributed to the students in the experimentaland control classes, and the English teachers in this secondary school were invited toconduct interviews in order to investigate the basic attitudes of teachers and studentstoward the multimodal listening and speaking teaching model.
Table 6.1 Reliability Statistics of Questionnaire
Chapter 7 Conclusion
7.1 Main Findings
In this paper, we apply the multimodal discourse analysis theory to the teachingof English listening and speaking in junior high school and conduct a one-yearapplied study. Through the applied study, the following conclusion can be drawn: 1.Through two questionnaire surveys before and after the experiment, we found thatstudents in the experimental class were more adept at using English languageconventions to think about problems and were able to explore their knowledge andskills in learning a second language on their own, receiving richer comprehensibleinput and actively mastering comprehensible output. 2. Interviews with junior highschool English teachers also showed that most English teachers believed that themultimodal junior high school English listening and speaking instruction, with itsmultiple assessment methods and teaching approaches, could promote students’effective acquisition of English listening and speaking skills in real-life situations; 3.The pre-test and post-test showed that the listening and speaking scores of theexperimental class were significantly improved. It is feasible and effective to applymultimodal discourse analysis theory to junior high school English listening andspeaking teaching.
The multimodal listening and speaking teaching mode connects teachingobjectives with students’ real life according to their learning interests andcharacteristics, selects multiple teaching methods (communicative method, listeningmethod, task-based teaching method, etc.) that interest students, uses symbolicresources of multiple modalities (pictures, videos, audio, objects, etc.), combines themwith the most suitable sensory modalities (visual, auditory, tactile), createsmultimodal teaching situations (problematic situation modality, entertainment situation modality, evaluation situation modality, lifelike situation modality, culturalreproduction situation modality, etc.), and engages students physically andemotionally in the process of teacher-student interaction.This will not only improvestudents’ listening and speaking performance, but also cultivate their good learninghabits and intercultural communication skills.