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加纳可可产业出口竞争力评价分析——西非八国数据比较[经济论文]
  • 论文价格:150
  • 用途:硕士毕业论文 Master Thesis
  • 编辑:vicky
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  • 论文字数:42585
  • 论文编号:el2021082214124923064
  • 日期:2021-09-26
  • 来源:上海论文网
产业经济学论文哪里有?通过阅读书籍和研究论文进行了初步研究,以评估可可出口竞争力和一般农业竞争力分析相关文献的可用性。文献不足的挑战被认为不是一个威胁,因为可可行业已经进行了大量研究,可以通过互联网轻松访问。

CHAPTER ONE (1) INTRODUCTION

1.3 Problem Statement
Although the Theo bromine bean (Cocoa) is alien to the West African sub-region, the sub-region,  however,  has  assumed  the  leading  role  in  the  production  of  Cocoa.  The cocoa industry in West  Africa is highly competitive. This is because these countries seek  to  enhance  food  security,  mitigate  the  harm  of  poverty  and  boost  their export-based crop cultivation to earn optimum foreign exchange to support growth and development (15). 
Ghana by 1911 became the largest producer of cocoa with export volumes of 41,000 metric  tons.  The  1920s,  further  witnessed  massive  improvement  as  Ghana  produced 165,000 – 213,000 metric tons, and added approximately 40% of the aggregate global cocoa  production.  The  (1938-1964),  period  saw  an  erratic,  slow  and  unproductive, growth  in  cocoa  production  in  Ghana,  and  by  1967,  Ghana  lost  her place  as  the  top producer  of  cocoa  beans  in  the  world.  The  retro  (1967-1982)  further  witnessed  low yield as a result of the plague of swollen shoot disease of cocoa. In the 1970s, cocoa production in Ghana nearly came to standstill. However, the sector was rescued and had some expansion, with the introduction of the Economic Recovery Program (ERP), and with  the  aid  of  the  World  Bank  Cocoa  Rehabilitation  Project.  The  year  2000s  saw transformed  efforts  to  further increase  growth  in  cocoa  production  in  Ghana.  Ghana Cocoa Board (COCOBOD) introduced the High Tech (HT), and the Cocoa Disease and Pest Control (CODAPEC) programs to curb the drop in harvests and to increase output to a mark equal to one million tons of beans (1). As a result, Ghana‟s total cocoa output increased from 400,000 tons in 1999-2000 to 700020 tons and 879348 tons in 2011 and 2012  respectively.  Currently,  Ghana‟s  production  volumes  account  for  about  17% percent of total world supply making Ghana the second leading producer of the cocoa beans. Although, The excellence of Ghana‟s cocoa beans has turn out to be the global benchmark against which all cocoa is measured, and also attracts premium rates of 3.0 to 5.0 percent in relation to Côte d‟Ivoire the leading producer of cocoa beans in the world (17), Ghana has failed to regain her glory as the biggest producer of Cocoa in the world.  Ghana‟s present state can best be described as stagnant since, for six years (2012 - 2017), no significant increase in production volumes has been recorded. It is obvious that Ghana‟s cocoa beans production and export is fast reducing which calls for swift  measures.  This  can  only  be  done  when  the  sector  is  well  analyzed  in  order  to identify the variables that need much attention. Hence, the study analyzes the export competitiveness of Ghana‟s cocoa industry within the West African Sub-region. 
目录
加纳可可产业出口竞争力评价分析目录
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CHAPTER THREE (3) METHODOLOGY

3.1 Description of the Study Area
The  focus  of  the  research  is  Ghana;  however,  reference  is  made  to  other  cocoa growing  countries  in  West  Africa.  As  shown  in  figure  4  below,  data  from  eight countries were used for comparative analysis. Those countries are painted yellow in the map below. Ghana is a country on the Gulf of Guinea in close proximity to the equator. Geographically, Ghana is located on latitudes 4°45‟N and 11°N, and longitude 1°15‟E and 3°15‟W. Ghana shares boundaries with Burkina Faso to the North, the Southern border of Ghana is the gulf of Guinea, and the West and East of Ghana are Togo and Cote d‟ Ivoire respectively.  Ghana occupies total land marks of 238,535 Km2, which is dominated by forest and grassland. Ghana is blessed with a very good topography with good plains, water falls, low hills, rivers, Islands and the World largest man-made lake.
Based on the rainfall pattern, soils, and the crops that are grown in various parts of the country, Ghana is put into six agro ecological zones: The tropical rain-forest in the south western region with high rainfall of up to 22000 mm; The Sudan Savannah in the north  eastern  area  with  rainfall  of  approximately  1000mm  annually.  The  deciduous forest in the middle belt with rainfall of 1500mm annually; the Guinea Savannah in the northern  regions  with  rainfall  of  1100mm  annually;  the  Transitional  zone  with  an annual  rainfall  of  1200mm;  and  the  coastal  savannah  which  is  characterized  by convectional rainfall due to the nearness to the water body.Figure 4: West African Map showing cocoa growing countries colored in yellow
Figure 4: West African Map showing cocoa growing countries colored in yellow 
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CHAPTER  FIVE  (5)  SUMMARY,  CONCLUSION, AND RECOMMENDATION

5.3 Conclusion and Recommendation
For  all  intents  and  purposes,  the  study  examined  the  export  competitiveness  of Ghana‟s cocoa industry in West Africa. Ghana‟s export values were compared with the export values of Cote d‟ Ivoire, Nigeria, Cameroon, Sierra Leone, Liberia and Guinea from  1999  to  2018.  The  Revealed  Comparative  Advantage  and  the  Revealed Symmetric Comparative  Advantage indices were  used as method of determining the export  competitiveness.  The  study  findings  revealed  that  although  the  production volume of Ghana‟s cocoa is low compared with Cote d‟ Ivoire, Ghana is exceedingly good in cocoa beans export. Ghana‟s export of cocoa beans is strongly influenced by the  volume  of  cocoa  beans  produced  and  the  world  consumer  price  of  cocoa  beans, farm  gate price of cocoa in Ghana, and government policies and programs. Ghana‟s RCA and RSCA figures show that Ghana has out-competed the other major producers and exporters of cocoa beans in the West African sub-region. This is because Ghana export very good quality cocoa beans and also as a result of the increasing government spending‟s to boost the sector performance. Ghana is recognized globally for producing excellent  cocoa.  The  COCOBOB  police  the  entire  cocoa  value  chain  right  from  the point of production to the sales point in order to maintain excellent. Nonetheless, some major  constraining  factors  such  as  unproductive  aged  cocoa  trees,  corruption  in  the governance and management of the cocoa industry, cocoa land lost, price determination issues,pest and disease infestation, inadequate logistics and inputs supply, bush fires, cocoa  trafficking,  cocoa  price  instability,  national  and  international  protocols, inefficient  capacity  building  of  farmers  and  cocoa  workers,  and  low  government expenditure. Ghana needs to work on its ailing cocoa yields and production output by overcoming these problems, in order to boost its annual cocoa yield and productivity so as  to  sustain  its  gains  going  forward.  Based  on  expert  responses,  the  study  findings show that there are five major areas that require much attention in order to sustain the cocoa industry. They include: Boost cocoa production by planting hybrid and climate smart cocoa trees, provision of improved chemicals and control of pest and diseases. Increase  the  quality  of  cocoa  through  improvement  of  the  harvesting  and  drying techniques, and maintain standards and certification, boost local processing technology in  the  various  cocoa  growing  regions,  Improve  cocoa  cultivation  and  production infrastructure, and build the capacities of farmers, and Increase government budget for the  cocoa  sector,  and  also  enter  into  partnership  with  other  producing  countries  to establish commodity market in West Africa. 
reference(omitted)