This research thesis has presented the disparities in stadia designs as applicable to Niger, China and Europe. Also, a proposal is put forward to classify stadium facilities in Niger into three groups namely; (1) national or international, (2) city town of provincial and (3) local or grassroots. The first and second chapters presented the Codes of construction of stadiums in EuropeAfrica and China has been extensively. It was apparent that the standards and requirements relating to the safety of the building construction varied from country tocountry and region to region. I also deduced that in each case -study, the design of the stadiums complied with the standards of the most stringent safety measures. It was noted; however that security should be a priority in all the details considered at the time of the architectural design. The third, fourth and fifth chapters elucidated a presentation and analysis of stadia level. In each of those chapters, three important stadiums in Niger, France and China were analyzed: The first level of sport complex structure was presented and analyzed in chapter three. Stadiums such as “Général Seyni Kountché “, “Matmut Atlantique also known as Nouveau Stade de Bordeaux” and “Beijing workers' stadium” from Niger, France and China respectively were highlighted as typical stadiumsinvestigated in this study.
CHAPTER ONE BACKGROUND, PURPOSE AND SIGNIFICANCE OF RESEARCH
Today sport plays a key role in almost all the developed countries; sport has become an industry with the construction of new stadia or sports complex. Sports complex and stadia are used as landmarks or trademarks for cities and countries at large. The architecture put up adds value and identity to the area and not just the sports benefits. Sport is a vital necessity to the daily lives of every human and it is necessary to create a good place for the practice of the latter in all its forms, to the stage individual and to step professional. The needs of his back ground following the construction of the stadia and sports complex. In Niger, in a first step, we are witnessing a very rapid growth in construction of infrastructure of sport in the sub-region between 1976 and 1986. Each of its seven regions (Agadez, Diffa, Dosso, Maradi, Tahoua, Tillaberi and Zinder) had been equipped with a sports and cultural infrastructure. By the same program the capital Niamey benefited by an Olympic class stadium in 1988. It is from there that we are witnessing a fall in this area despite the increasing need, in both quantity and quality. Niger covers a land area of one million two hundred seventy seven thousand square kilometers (1 267 000km2), making it the largest country in West Africa, The country's predominantly Islamic population of 20,670,000 (20.67 million in 2016) is mostly clustered in the far south and west of the country. The capital city is Niamey, located in the far-southwest corner of Niger. A landlocked country which gained its national sovereignty August 3, 1960, today Niger is divided into 7 departments (Agadez, Diffa, Dosso, Maradi, Tahoua, Tillaberi and Zinder) and the urban community of Niamey (the capital). The thesis of the inspector Soriba Sylla, 5th promotion of the INSEPS Dakar, 1991-1992 «Pour undéveloppement des infrastructures sportives en Guinée. The author was reminded of the importance of sports infrastructure in the social development, economic development, culture and sport of a country. He spoke of the relationship between the sports Ministry and the urban development and housing as well as the procedures that must be followed to have a sports inf rastructure in a locality and how to maintain them. li is very much inspired by the example of Niger and Senegal to propose Guinea a policy of the endowment with sports infrastructure.
CHAPTER TWO: THE COMPARISON OF DIFFERENT LEVELS OF STADIUIM
2.1 Design code of sport building in European Continent
The construction code in Architecture and civil engineering in the European countries is versatile; this code has a little large definition because it covered a lot of domain such as engineering, civil engineering, roads and railway, water conservation and hydropower, port terminals, etc. The European Committee of Standardization (CEN) and the European UNION, in accordance with Article 83/189 / EE of the Directive have to revise theconstruction code every 5 years and must publish it in three languages namely, English (BS EN), French (NF) and German (DIN EN). The Union of European Football Associations, better known under its acronym UEFA is an association comprising and representing national federat ions of football of Europe. Founded in 1954, UEFA's role was to manage and develop football at the continental level, under the aegis of the FIFA. It organizes and administers th e main continental competitions A classification of the stages is set up by the Union of European Football Associations (UEFA); this ranking is a rating system of football stadiums in Europe .This evaluation is done following the criteria of capacity, safety and comfort. Previously in the form of stars (one to four), the ranking now includes four ranks since 2006[39,40]It is, in order of requirement groups 1, 2, 3 and 4. This Regulation of the Land and Sports Facilities sets out the technical characteristics which must be met by the sports facilities used for the official
competitions organized or authorized by the French Football Federation (F. F. F.). It allows the F. F. F., on the one hand, to proceed to the classification of the places of practice of football and, on the other hand, to advise and educate contractors and building owners in the framework of projects for rehabilitation and construction of sports facilities for the sports discipline. In the framework of the participation in competitions of an international nature, the sports facilities will be required to comply with the requirements laid down by the regulations of the involved events from Federations such a s the F. I. F. A. or U. E. F. A.), and this within the limits of the provisions of article 2, paragraph 1, of decree no. 2006-217 of 22 February 2006.Accordingly, the provisions specific to theinternational competitions are not included in this regulation, which was intended to govern only the national competitions. The football pitches and sports facilities used for the conduct of official competitions are classified into six levels (1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6). The classification of land by the French Football Federation not as a substitute to any of the legal and regulatory provisions applicable in France in matters of town planning, construction, security, accessibility, safety and hygiene.
2.2 Design code of sport building in francophone Africa
The stadiums of the ancient (Rome) up here remain our models. The football pitches of 70 x109m and the track that surrounds them are the image feature of the current playgrounds. The basic shape of the terrain is an ellipse, recalling the ancient form. In general, the stages are partially excavated, and the earth removed is used to backfill the perimeter. Facilities sport need to be equipped with easy access, good links to public transport (stops, trains, buses, and trams), large parking lots, etc. Avoid the vicinity of industries because of the fumes, smells and noise is undesirable. Together the installations covered and in air for different sports activities and incorporate in plans-general of the city. In Africa in many francophone countries the code of construction is related to French country’s one. This is probably due to the colonialism by Europe in the past.The French building code (NF) is used in the francophone countries; the countries in Africa who have French as an official language and also the countries that speak French.The code of construction for stadiums and sports ground in the African country must submit to the regulations of CAF (Confederation of African Football) and, of course to the French standards and the Federation International of Football Association (FIFA). In Niger we have a Football Federation named FENIFOOT, which is affiliated to FIFA and to CAF since its foundation in 1967. The FENIFOOT is an association of football clubs in Niger and organizing the national competitions and the international matches of the selection of Niger. [46,47]
CHAPTER THREE: SCALE AND DESIGN OF THE FIRST LEVEL STADIUM.......... 63
3.1 Sport complex structure in Niger: Case of the stadium Général Seyni Kountché (SGSK), Niamey ...................................... 63
3.2 Sport complex structure in France: Case of the stadium of Matmut Atlantique (Nouveau Stade de Bordeaux) .................................. 69
3.3 Sport complex structure in China: Case of Beijing workers' stadium ........... 76
CHAPTER FOUR: SCALE AND DESIGN OF THE SECOND LEVEL STADIU 82
4.1 Sport complex structure in Niger: Case of the Stade Régional Sidi Mohamed.......85
4.2 Sport complex structure in France: Case of the stadium Dominique Duvauchelle ................... 87
CHAPTER FIVE: SCALE AND DESIGN OF THE THIRD LEVEL STADIUM ... 99
5.1 Sport complex structure in Niger: Case of the Municipal stadium of Niamey...............100
5.2 Sport complex structure in France: Case of Léo Lagrange stadium ............ 103
CHAPTER FIVE: SCALE AND DESIGN OF THE THIRD LEVEL STADIUM
5.1 Sport complex structure in Niger: Case of the Municipal stadium of Niamey
Starting from 1000 up to its construction the stadium has followed a succession of renovations and 2004 for the preparation of the games of la Francophonie in 2005 and in 2014 for the CAN cadet football 2015 and this is that the stadium has tripled its capacity, it increases of 1000 seats has its construction has 3000 seats today. Based on the fact that; this stadium the Municipal stadium of Niamey hosts two games per month. The stadium and its environment is not only dedicated to football, he also offers group activities that everyone can take own ership.This stage, the structure of which in the concrete slab is a play area for children is thus a great center with shops, restaurant, and ample parking. The Niger is on the right track to succeed in the bet to organize the CAN cadet football 2015 on its soil. The political will, even if it manifested itself in the last moments allowed to blow the accelerator to the renovation of the municipal stadium of Niamey and to catch up the considerable delay noted by the supervision missions of the CAF. To return the stadium to the standards of FIFA and for it to be the second site of the competition with the stadium General Seyni Kountché in the competitions of the CAN cadet football 2015, he will have to build locker rooms, the press rooms to deliver the municipal stadium to international standards and meet the requirements of FIFA.
5.2 Sport complex structure in France: Case of Léo Lagrange stadium
With its magnificent coverage of forums in the form of a veil of 3500 m2and its many amenities, the stadium sports Leo Lagrange, was inaugurated on Wednesday, February 6, 2013. It is located in Toulon, a town South-East of France, the Third largest city in the region Provence-Alpes-Côte d'azur behind Marseille and Nice. The objective of the project was to inserta car park of 7 000 m2 4 500 m2of change rooms and storage facilities, two grandstands for 2,500 spectators, four football pitches and rugby, a pole school and a pole competition separate with a capacity of 4 400 persons, on the 7 acres, in res onance with the landscape of the mountains Faron and Coudon. The architects of the agency archi5 have produced the stade Léo Lagrange in Toulon. Between mountains and sea, the volume unfolds, playing with the constraint of a restricted site, enhancing the remarkable landscape. The sports complex is conceived as a vast urban park dedicated to sports an d recreational activities, with three rugby pitches and a football regional, international athletics and six school grounds. The canvas shade of the colors of the sky and the landscape enveloping the delicate silhouettes of the mountains neighbours of Coud on and Faron. At night, cover textile, lit from within, is transformed into a ribbon of light, and expresses the function and sporting event. According to Thomas Dryjski (Architect of the firm archi5) all volumes fit beneath and within the building forums or in the sports fields. This compactness of the built environment participates in the energyefficiency of the whole further enhanced by the solar heating, rainwater retention for irrigation of multiple fields.. The complexe sportif Léo Lagrange, formerly stage Make-Pre, is part of the heritage and memory of the inhabitants of the agglomeration. It was opened o n 29 March 1953 as the “stage of education-Pre ". The decision to create this point had been taken in 1942, during the reconstruction of Toulon and permitted, thanks to the aid of the Ministry of national Education of the time. Every inhabitant of Toulon and the eastern part of the agglomeration has practiced at the site in the future, as a school, as a practitioner within a sporting club or simply as a resident of the district. The site with a capacity of 4 900 was open to all and all day, the facilities w ere of high quality when they are created, in particular thanks to the athletics track in tartan, which provided for the site a regional reach. And then, from 1990, these facilities are aging, the major equipment of the agglomeration in terms of attendance no longer meets the new standards of the host. It was in 2003 that the equipment has been transfer to Toulon Provence Méditerranée (TPM) and was enlarged from 2003 to 2005 and from 2 to 4 stands : the Tribune of Honour (North) and the Forum Visitors (West) and the two new stands ; the South stand and the East stand.
The second level of sport complexes in Niger, France and China were discussed in chapter four. The Regional stadium Sidi Mohamed (Niger), the stadium Dominique Duvauchelle (France) and Shenzhen Bay Sports Center (China) were suitably selected as typical second level stadia involved in this study. Chapter five focused on the third level of sport complex structure in Niger, France and China where the cases of the municipal stadium of Niamey, the Léo Lagrange stadium and the Liao Jia Gou Central Park Football Field, were respectively studied. The following recommendations are proposed for the design, construction and safety of Niger stadiums; (1) On the Architectural Plan Standards regarding insurance and maintenance of stadium facilities must be strictly adhered to, as this will provide long-lasting structures as well as enhance spectator confidence of their safety. The occupational safety and health practices must be strictly followed. This should cover the safety of persons, evacuation points in the buildings during the event of fire outbreaks or emergency situations, etc. (2) On the Facility Management Plan The establishment of a stadium’s management division under the Ministry of Youth and Sport should be implemented. This division will be saddled with the responsibilities of enhancing that the stadium facilities at all levels meet regulatory Standards at all times. (3) On the Cultural Level, The establishment of a division for sports development and culture should be created. An important role of this division is to device marketing strategies such as development of creative sports activities in enhancing patronage of existing sporting facilities both at grass-root and national levels. This may entail the use of the stadiums for non-sport purposes. In conclusion, future studies is to design and construct a pilot stadium based on one of the proposed levels peculiar to the system in Niger fact oring both sporting and non-sporting facilities.